ICL Fertilizers' history begins in the early 20th century with the first efforts to extract minerals from the Dead Sea in Israel's South. After Israel's independence in 1948, several state-owned companies were created to extract minerals from the Negev Desert and transform them into chemical products.
Rotem phosphate plant - 1954
- 1952 Establishment of Negev Phosphates Ltd. as a state-owned company to exploit the phosphates reserves in the Negev Desert.
- 1966 Arad Chemical Industries is established to manufacture phosphoric acid
- 1975 Negev Phosphates and Arad Chemical Industries merge
- 1977 Establishment of Rotem Fertilizers Ltd. to process phosphate rock into phosphoric acid and fertilizers
- 1978 Negev Star established through equal partnership with Zim Lines
- 1982 Acquisition of the fertilizer plant ICL Fertilizers Europe C.V. in Amsterdam, Holland
- 1989 Merger of Rotem and ICL Fertilizers Europe C.V., creation of the Rotem Amfert Group
- 1991 Negev Phosphates merges with Rotem Amfert, creating Rotem Amfert Negev Ltd.
- 1994 MKP Plant begins production
- 1997 The new Rotem 2 plants begin production of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid and fertilizers
- 1999 The Ofer Group purchased control of the Israel Corporation which controls ICL.
- 2000 Rotem Amfert Negev acquired a feed phosphate production unit in Turkey and started operating under the name of Rotem Turkey.
- 2001 Dead Sea Works & Rotem Amfert Negev are unified to form ICL Fertilizers